You can apply for a new visa if your visa does not have a condition that prevents further stay, such as condition 8503.
No further stay condition prevents the visa holder from applying for many temporary and permanent visas while they are in Australia. ‘No Further Stay’ conditions include 8503, 8534 and 8535.
If one of these conditions has been imposed on your visa, you cannot apply for another visa (except a protection visa or a temporary visa of a specified kind, while you are in Australia).
When you depart Australia a ‘No Further Stay’ condition will not prevent you from applying for other visas.